Książę Witold Wielki w kampanii letniej 1410 r. w ocenie Jana Długosza

Žydrūnas Mačiukas


The author of the article shows that both the Polish and Lithuanian historiography pays great attention to the opinion of Jan Długosz on Prince Vytautas the Great. The reason for this interest is the fact that Jan Długosz devoted a lot of space to Prince Vytautas, presenting his activity during an extended period of time (1376–1430) and, in his description of the 1410 campaign, depicted a highly ambiguous picture of the Prince of Lithuania. The Polish and Lithuanian literature assumes that Prince Vytautas played an extremely significant role in the preparation and the course of the Great War of Poland and Lithuania with the Teutonic Order whose climax
was the battle of Grunwald. It is generally known that the Prince participated in that battle in person. The author of the article discusses the development of the Lithuanian research on
the activity of Prince Vytautas. Three aspects of forming evaluation of Vytautas the Great in the time of the 1410 military campaign are visible in Długosz’s opinion: military, moral and
politico-diplomatic. Długosz also evaluates the army of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania which participated in the battle of Grunwald. The literature on the topic underlines that Długosz’s
description of the battle of Grunwald is one of the most exhaustive portrayals of Vytautas as a warrior and leader preserved in the medieval sources. The author concludes that Długosz presents an extraordinarily positive opinion about Prince Vytautas with reference to the battle of Grunwald while his evaluation of the Lithuanian army and its alleged abandonment
of the battlefield are definitely negative. In the description of the next stages of the 1410 campaign, Długosz’s opinion about Prince Vytautas undergoes a radical change which was supposed to stem from the change of the Prince’s politics towards Poland and the Teutonic Order. From a staunch ally and the commander of the battle of Grunwald he transforms into a politician interested solely in the welfare of Lithuania, insincere towards Poland or even plotting with the Teutonic Knights against Poland. Długosz, who in 1410 wished to make the most of the Grunwald victory, wrongly blames Prince Vytautas for ruining the opportunity of capturing Malbork.

Słowa kluczowe

późne średniowiecze, Grunwald, Zakon Krzyżacki, ks. Witold, Jan Długosz

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