Zamek w Muszynie w świetle najnowszych badań archeologicznych

Barbara Chudzińska


Laconicity of written sources and scarcity of iconography prevent a complete reconstruction of the history of the Cracvian bishops’ castle in Muszyna, the reconstruction of its architectural shape and the possible restructuring. In such a case, archaeology becomes very helpful. The campaigns so far (1963, 1973–1974, 1991, 1996–1998, 2007–2008) have partly clarified the outline of the foundations and made it possible to sketch out the plan, which will certainly be verified by the future (planned) excavation works. During the works, rich archaeological material was obtained, dated between the 15th and the 18th century, which
provides informations about the level and style of life of the inhabitants. Currently the position of the defence walls can be reconstructed on the plan of an approximate rectangle measuring about 30 m by 59 m, with a four-sided gate tower in the south-east corner and a deep risalit along the greater part of the south wall. The interior was divided in two by a wall. In the western part there was a – probably – two-storey, one-suite
house, perhaps a residential building (which is suggested by the character of the archaeological discoveries). Also the rooms in the risalit were assigned for accommodation. On the opposite side, in the north-east corner, kitchens were situated, perhaps with an internal well. The castle was separated from the remaining part of the hill by a natural moat, over which a wooden bridge was built, its last section being a drawbridge. It is traditionally maintained that the stone castle was built on the initiative of Casimir the Great (earlier in Muszyna there was a small fortified settlement near the castle; its earth walls partly survived). In the first half of the 15th century it became the property of the bishops of Cracow. The 15th century is the most violent period of its history. It was besieged a number
of times and destroyed too a various degree (which is confirmed by the character of layers). At the turn of the 16th century it was rebuilt in the renaissance style, retaining the defence
walls. After being destroyed at the end of the 16th century, it was abandoned by its inhabitants and, despite occasional repairs, has been falling into ruin since then. Until our times, only the
lower parts of the tower and short fragments of the defence walls have survived.

Słowa kluczowe

badania archeologiczne, Muszyna

Pełny tekst: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.