Stan sieci komunikacyjnej w województwie krakowskim w latach Drugiej Rzeczypospolitej .

Janusz Kowal


The problem of transport infranstructure in Cracow province during 1918-1939 can be wrapped up with the following conclusions:

1. the condition and the territorial shape of the transport system in Cracow province was greatly influenced by the policy of the of the Austro-Hungarian state. That policy was focused mainly on its own benefits, which were frequently contrary to the interests of the inhabitants of Małopolska (military objectives, interests of the industry and agriculture of Austria, Czech, Moravia, and Hungary); 2. serious damages to the transport system in Cracow province were brought about by: World War I and natural disasters (especially the flood of July 1934); 3. during the inter-war years, Cracow province did not record any significant improvement of the condition of the transport infrastructure. This was partially caused by: the financial problems of the state and of the local government in the province, and by the more important priorities of the country in that respect (integration of the transport systems of the three partitions, construction of the port in Gdynia and of the railroad arterial line connecting Silesia with Gdynia); 4. the highways and railroads in Cracow province were in the worst situation during the years of the great recession. At that time, the expenditures for the construction of new ways and repair of old ones were drastically limited. The recession caused debts due to the road fees; 5. improvement of financing of road works could be seen only after 1934. It was related to the improvement of the economic situation, reparation of the damage caused by the flood of 1934, and the works conducted by the government and the local authorities (mainly COP – Central Industrial District); 6. during the great recession, and in the years immediately following it, the labour of village inhabitants (share-work) was a very serious factor; 7. communal roads were in the worst shape in Cracow province during the inter-war years.They were often almost impassable due to the bad surface and weather conditions;     8. prices of railroad tickets and tariffs, and poverty of Cracow villages caused that the basic means of transportation here were not trains or automobiles, but horses; 9. there were large differences of standards of transportation infrastructure among individual counties in Cracow province during the years of the 2nd Republic. The best transport system was in the counties of: Biała, Chrzanów, and Cracow. The worst in that respect were: Gorlice, Dąbrowa, Mielec, Myślenice, and Ropczyce; 10 pauperization of the residents of Cracow province, bad condition of the road system, and of the network of services (hotels, repair workshops, etc.) connected with it, were the main factors impairing the growth of automobile activity, and consequently of tourism.

Słowa kluczowe

historia gspodarcza, transport

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