Średniowieczne pogranicze w Karpatach – refleksje nad informacjami Jana Długosza

Jerzy Rajman


The research aim the author placed before himself was to present the meaning of Jan Długosz’s relation for the research on the medieval Carpathian border, dividing the kingdoms of Poland and Hungary. All of the Długosz’s works were included, the most important of whichare the Roczniki czyli Kroniki Królestwa Polskiego, but much valuable information is also hiddenin Liber beneficiorum diocesis Cracoviensis. The author used the so-called Długosz autograph, stored in the Archives of the Krakow Chapter. The physiographic description of Długosz and the geographical nomenclature used in his times, mentions on the forests and climate conditions were analyzed. Attention was put on his information on the border signs used, monarch summits and the presence of border courts, changes to the borders (the issue of Spiš), or the legend of the gold hidden in the Carpathians. The works of Długosz bring valuable informationon castles, monasteries, armed conflicts, roads leading through the mountains and the meansof communication. Among the most interesting are archives on closing roads by blocking themwith fallen trees. Furthermore, Długosz includes valuable data on the Vlach’s population, and also partially on the religious interrelations. His description of the development of colonization, descriptions of the border cities or the characteristics of extraordinary lords fall a little bit weaker compared to the rest. The information on trade or the brigands lurking on both sides ofthe border is fragmentary, but important. Długosz revealed a detailed, albeit not always strict, knowledge on geography and geographic nomenclature. His works are an extraordinarily important source for nearly all aspects of the Carpathian borderlands functioning.

Słowa kluczowe

pogranicze, średniowiecze, Karpaty, osadnictwo, Królestwo Polski, Królestwo Węgier, drogi, zamki, wojny, zbójnicy, handel, parafie, klasztory, miasta, spory graniczne, sądy polubowne

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