Europejczyk odkrywa Wschód. Lewant w latach 1096–1127/28 jako pogranicze trzech cywilizacji i miejsce poszerzania horyzontu geograficznego – analiza źródłoznawcza

Dawid Gołąb


The article A European discovers the East. Levant in 1096–1127/1128 as a borderlandof three civilizations and a place of broadening the geographical horizon – primary sources analysis offers an insight into the three dimensions of the Crusader Levant as a borderland: geography,material culture and warfare, relations between civilizations. Two primary sources have been investigated to analyze the subject: Historia Hierosolymitana by Fulcher of Chartres and Alexiad by Anna Komnene. After general introduction presenting the chronology and territory, geographical descriptions are presented and analyzed. Next part is dedicated to the material cultureand warfare. In the last, but the most important part, relations of the Crusaders with Byzantines and Muslims, non-material culture and mutual perception of the parties are analyzed, giving a non-stereoptypical view on the topic. The main conclusions are: (1) Levant was a genuine experience of geography, fauna and flora for European pilgrims; (2) in the cultural part, Levant’s political life was organized in a European manner, but material culture has been strongly influenced by local factors (same was true regarding warfare); (3) foreign relations have been especially violent in the beginning, when a clash of the civilizations and religions (amplified with strangeness) occurred, but later on relations became more peaceful and “civilized”, as a kind of coexistence has been established. Despite military campaigns still being conducted, there wasless violence against the civilians, etc. Knowledge and awareness of different civilizations also improved by the time.

Słowa kluczowe

pogranicza, cywilizacje, kontakty, krucjaty, Państwa Krzyżowe

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