„Kobiety samotne” w środowiskach protestanckich w Królestwie Polskim i na Śląsku Cieszyńskim w XIX wieku
In Protestantism, the woman’s place was at home, with her husband and children, the most important function being that of wife and mother. Single women were treated as a certain deviation from the applicable norm. However, according to Protestant principles, every individual should be socially useful, including the so‑called “old maids”. An area where they could prove useful was the Evangelical church and charity. Many women became deacons, sometimes called Protestant nuns, working in Evangelical hospitals and nursing homes, and helping pastors in their pastoral work. Some were active in Protestant charities and were actively involved in parish life. Less wealthy single women could also count on material help from the congregation. It was clearly indicated that the place of “old maids” was to be in the church environment.