Działalność rolna administracji żywieckiej w dobrach Albrechta Fryderyka Habsburga w latach 1871–1880.

  • Marta Tylza-Janosz
Słowa kluczowe: administracja żywiecka, Albrecht Fryderyk Habsburg, gospodarka rolna

Abstrakt

In the 19th century in Western Galicia, on the territory of the former Żywiec country of the Wielopolski family, there existed an estate whose owners were the Habsburgs. Żywieckie lands were linked with that family from 1808 to 1944, and their biggest development took place during the reign of Archduke Albrecht Frederick (1838–1895). The period (1847–1895) was characterised by increased industrialisation and development of modern farming. Żywieckie estate was connected with Cieszyn Chamber until 1847, when Albrecht detached Żywieckie and created a separate administration for the Galician property, namely the Management of Żywieckie Property, headed by a director-in-chief who replaced Archduke and managed all activities in Albrecht’s estate. In the years 1871–1880, the Management was divided into seven sections, and after 1875 into eight, each of which conducted a different sphere of activity. Thus, among others, there functioned offices of forestry, industry, building and agrarian economy, which farms were subject to. Żywiec administration was alert and headed activities led on the lands in three sectors, namely farming, forestry and industry.

The agrarian activity was concentrated in the so-called “economies” which Żywiec administration gave for lease or held in own management. On average 6–8 economies in the total number of 12–15 farms were on lease during the analysed period. Farms in own management in 1871 consisted of 4 rural districts: Dankowice, Lipowa, Obszar and Wieprz with 17 farms. Until 1880 administration gave Dankowice and Lipowa for lease. The agrarian activity in the estate was conducted in four directions: crop production, breeding, fishing, dairy production and propination. In agrarian production, the main branch was cereals and root crops. In popular use were both manure and chemical fertilizers. In Dankowice, Wieprz and Lipowa, dairy animals and sheep prevailed as they supplied milk for the production of cheese that was popular in Vienna and produced in Wieprz and Dankowice. The biggest income came from propination, thanks to a dense network of inns and distilleries. In the studied period farming was generally not very profitable, and that was why after 1880, Żywiec administration started limiting its agrarian activities for the benefit of timber processing and beer making.

Opublikowane
2015-06-29
Jak cytować
Tylza-JanoszM. (2015). Działalność rolna administracji żywieckiej w dobrach Albrechta Fryderyka Habsburga w latach 1871–1880. Res Gestae, 4, 114-121. https://doi.org/10.24917/2454
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