Gimnazjaliści galicyjscy doby autonomicznej. Charakterystyka społeczności.

  • Lucyna Kudła Instytut Historii Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie
Słowa kluczowe: szkołniictwo w Galicji, zabór austiacki


One of the consequences of introducing autonomy in Galicia was the enlivening of the education at the secondary level. It was demonstrated by establishing a larger number of high schools and by the larger number of students. During 1896–1914, 27 new state high schoolswere established. Broader access to secondary education for the youth was demanded by the pedagogical circles who saw an opportunity to spread high school education in the new social, political and economic situation. The number of schools and students was decidedly higher in the large cities, and reputable high schools enjoyed a particular popularity.

The multinational character of the Habsburg monarchy was reflected in the nationality structure of the schools. The largest group of students were Poles, followed by Ukrainians and Jews. The beginning of 20th century brought aggravation of the relations among the nationalities, which was a consequence of the national movements and the independence tendencies. High schools were a reflection of the religious mosaic existing in the Austrian partition. Roman-Catholics definitely prevailed among the students, but the number of Greek-Catholic and Jewish students kept increasing.

Analysing the social descent of the high school students, one can notice a growingnumber of peasant sons starting education. It was a result of the situation in the country, as well as of the broadly understood work emigration of peasants. A vast majority of students were the sons of landed gentry. A broader access to high school education was gained by the sons of industrialists, merchants, craftsmen, and intelligentsia. Differentiation of the students’ community brought about the necessity to resolve various pedagogical problems. The youth, often deprived of the constant parental supervision, was exposed to agitation activities of the emerging political parties. It was reflected in the national and religious conflicts.
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KudłaL. (2015). Gimnazjaliści galicyjscy doby autonomicznej. Charakterystyka społeczności. Res Gestae, 4, 97-113.